•Communication systems

•Computer systems

•Control systems

•Electromagnetic

•Electronics

•Photonics

•Power systems

•Signal processing

__Electric Current__

•The time rate of flow of electrical charge passing through a predetermined area of a conductor.

•The unit is in Ampere [A]

•Constant current of 1[A]=1[C/s]

Fluid Flow Analogy

•Electrical circuits are analogous to fluid flow systems.

•Battery = Pump

•Charge=Fluid

•Conductors (Copper wires)=pipes

•Current=Flow rate of the fluid

•Voltage=Pressure difference between points in the fluid circuit

Switches=ValvesKirchhoff’s Current Law(KCL)

•A node in an electrical circuit is a point at which two ore more circuit elements are joined together.

•The net current entering a node is

__zero__.•Current entering---------- (+)

•Current leaving------------ (-)

•I1+I2-I3=0

•Another way to state KCL: The sum of currents entering a node

__equals__the sum of currents leaving a node.•I1+I2=I3

•No current is lost around the closed circuit

•The sum of the currents at a node must equal to

__zero__
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